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An analysis of waste gasification and its contribution to China’s transition towards carbon neutrality and zero waste cities

LEE Roh Pin SEIDL Ludwig Georg HUANG Qiu-liang MEYER Bernd

LEERoh Pin, SEIDLLudwig Georg, HUANGQiu-liang, MEYERBernd. 垃圾气化分析及其对中国实现碳中和与无废城市建设的贡献[J]. 燃料化学学报, 2021, 49(8): 1057-1076. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5813(21)60093-2
引用本文: LEERoh Pin, SEIDLLudwig Georg, HUANGQiu-liang, MEYERBernd. 垃圾气化分析及其对中国实现碳中和与无废城市建设的贡献[J]. 燃料化学学报, 2021, 49(8): 1057-1076. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5813(21)60093-2
LEE Roh Pin, SEIDL Ludwig Georg, HUANG Qiu-liang, MEYER Bernd. An analysis of waste gasification and its contribution to China’s transition towards carbon neutrality and zero waste cities[J]. Journal of Fuel Chemistry and Technology, 2021, 49(8): 1057-1076. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5813(21)60093-2
Citation: LEE Roh Pin, SEIDL Ludwig Georg, HUANG Qiu-liang, MEYER Bernd. An analysis of waste gasification and its contribution to China’s transition towards carbon neutrality and zero waste cities[J]. Journal of Fuel Chemistry and Technology, 2021, 49(8): 1057-1076. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5813(21)60093-2

垃圾气化分析及其对中国实现碳中和与无废城市建设的贡献

doi: 10.1016/S1872-5813(21)60093-2
详细信息
  • 中图分类号: X784

An analysis of waste gasification and its contribution to China’s transition towards carbon neutrality and zero waste cities

Funds: The project was supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education (BMBF) (01LN1713A)
More Information
    Corresponding author: E-mail: roh-pin.lee@iec.tu-freiberg.de
  • for more information about the HTW gasification technology and its application in Berrenrath and others, please refer to[25-28].
  • for more information on the Lurgi FBDB technology and its application in SVZ Schwarze Pumpe, please refer to[29-31].
  • for more information on the BGL technology and its application in SVZ Schwarze Pumpe, please refer to[27, 32, 33].
  • for more information on the GSP technology and its application in SVZ Schwarze Pumpe, please refer to[22, 27, 30, 34].
  • for more information on the Ebara UBE Process and its commercial applications, please refer to[41-44].
  • for more information on the Enerkem gasification technology and its commercial applications, refer to[45-51].
  • for more information on the TRI process and its commercial applications, please refer to[52-54].
  • for more information on InEnTec and the commercialization of its PEM process, please refer to[55, 56].
  • for more information about the FastOx technology from Sierra Energy and its commercial applications, please refer to[57-60].
  • Insights by Prof. Bernd Meyer from first-hand experience with operations at the HTW demonstration plant in Berrenrath (then as head of the R&D division for waste gasification at Rheinbraun AG between 1989 to 1994) as well as from the operations at SVZ Schwarze Pumpe (then as chief technology consultant for SVZ Schwarze Pumpe between 1994 to 2007).
  • The objective of the generalized evaluation is to present readers with first insights into the issues which would be associated and must be addressed for waste gasification via different gasification principles. Note that the performance of specific gasification technologies may differ from this generalized and qualitative evaluation.
  • 摘要: 气化是实现化学利用碳资源(尤其是煤)生产化学品和燃料的关键工艺。目前,全球拥有超过272套气化装置,主要应用于煤化工,尤其在中国。由于在一个化工厂通过技术集成达到工业规模的集中生产可实现减少二氧化碳排放并促进碳密集型行业的循环经济,如废物管理、化学和交通行业,因此,近年来全球对垃圾气化的兴趣日益浓厚,尤其是那些在煤气化技术方面积累了丰富的人力资本和运营经验以及拥有完整Coal-to-X产品价值链的国家,如中国,在挖掘通过垃圾气化实现Waste-to-X的潜力方面处于独特的地位。具体而言,废弃物可用于补充煤气化生产如下产品:(1)具有较低或零碳足迹的化学品,具体取决于废物是来源于化石资源还是生物资源。(2)来自生物废弃物的零碳足迹的绿色“氢”,以补充或替代来自煤气化或蒸汽重整得到的“灰色”氢,以供给氢能汽车,并推动工业脱碳。(3)来自生物废弃物的CO2中性合成液体燃料,用于交通工具,以补充或替代石油燃料和合成煤制液体燃料。然而,迄今为止,利用垃圾作为气化原料的操作经验有限,并且文献中也很少涉及以前和当前的工业垃圾气化经验。为了填补这些空白,本研究介绍了1980年代至2000年代德国的两项开创性技术发展—贝伦拉特(Berrenrath)和SVZ黑水泵(即Sekundärrohstoff-Verwertungszentrum: 黑水泵二次原料回收中心),并分享了以下三种垃圾与煤共气化技术(即Waste&Coal-to-X) 的相关认识和经验教训:固定床气化: 鲁奇干法排渣技术以及BGL熔渣气化技术。 流化床气化: 高温温克勒(HTW- High Temperature Winkler)气化工艺。气流床气化: GSP(Gaskombinat Schwarze Pumpe),即西门子气化工艺。此外,本研究也总结了目前全球 100% 垃圾气化技术的发展,即Waste-to-X。在气化技术的三种类型中,研发领域和工业界均对流化床与气流床(作为后期气化)技术的结合产生了浓厚的兴趣,这里介绍三个相关技术的重大发展—Ebara-Ube、Enerkem和ThermoChem Recovery International的技术。除此之外,固定床气化工艺的发展也得到了关注,本文介绍了两个相关技术的重大发展—InEnTec(将固定床与等离子气化相结合)和Sierra Energy(改造传统高炉转炉进行垃圾气化)的技术。借鉴以往和当前的国际发展经验,凭借其庞大的气化规模和丰富的专业知识,逐步将垃圾作为原料融入到煤气化中可以作为中国迈向循环经济和无废城市的第一步。将垃圾与煤共气化技术作为通向垃圾气化的桥梁,不仅可以使中国利用现有的人力资本和基础设施,还可以创造新的就业和商业机会,并支持中国实现可持续的垃圾管理策略,即在进行焚烧和填埋之前先进行减量、再利用和再循环。然而,将煤气化技术直接用于垃圾气化具有挑战性并且充满了较大的风险。本研究分享了贝伦拉特和 SVZ 黑水泵在垃圾与煤共气化方面遇到的各种运行问题以及从中得到的最新认识。然后介绍了这些积累的经验及认识是如何被考虑并应用到德国弗莱贝格工业大学的能源化工所开发的Flexi技术当中,包括:基于BGL熔渣气化技术开发FlexiSlag固定床气化技术。基于GSP气化技术开发FlexiEntrained气流床气化技术。基于HTW气化技术开发FlexiCOORVED气化技术。目前,Flexi技术在德国弗莱贝格开展中试规模运行,其目标是实现:(1)多元原料气化(例如生物质、煤、石油焦、不同类型的废物);(2)100%垃圾气化;(3)灵活的目标产品(即调整配置得到最大化的合成气产出,其中可含有最大化或最小化的甲烷、焦油和油的含量)以支持全球向碳中和和无废城市转型。鉴于全球(包括中国)实现无废城市和碳中和的目标,垃圾气化技术的长远发展不仅要向100%垃圾气化发展,还必须满足以下可持续性标准才能做出实质性的贡献:(1)多元进料,能够灵活利用多种类型的(废物)原料。(2)碳回收率最大化,以确保垃圾中的碳转移到产品中,而不是在整个过程链中以CO2的形式排放到环境中。(3)通过生产玻璃渣、从渣中回收金属和零废水排放,将环境影响降至最低。本研究最后根据上述三个可持续性标准对三种气化类型进行了定性的整体评价,阐述了它们在垃圾气化应用中的优势和劣势。
    for more information about the HTW gasification technology and its application in Berrenrath and others, please refer to[25-28].
    for more information on the Lurgi FBDB technology and its application in SVZ Schwarze Pumpe, please refer to[29-31].
    for more information on the BGL technology and its application in SVZ Schwarze Pumpe, please refer to[27, 32, 33].
    for more information on the GSP technology and its application in SVZ Schwarze Pumpe, please refer to[22, 27, 30, 34].
    for more information on the Ebara UBE Process and its commercial applications, please refer to[41-44].
    for more information on the Enerkem gasification technology and its commercial applications, refer to[45-51].
    for more information on the TRI process and its commercial applications, please refer to[52-54].
    for more information on InEnTec and the commercialization of its PEM process, please refer to[55, 56].
    for more information about the FastOx technology from Sierra Energy and its commercial applications, please refer to[57-60].
    Insights by Prof. Bernd Meyer from first-hand experience with operations at the HTW demonstration plant in Berrenrath (then as head of the R&D division for waste gasification at Rheinbraun AG between 1989 to 1994) as well as from the operations at SVZ Schwarze Pumpe (then as chief technology consultant for SVZ Schwarze Pumpe between 1994 to 2007).
    The objective of the generalized evaluation is to present readers with first insights into the issues which would be associated and must be addressed for waste gasification via different gasification principles. Note that the performance of specific gasification technologies may differ from this generalized and qualitative evaluation.
  • FIG. 831.  FIG. 831.

    FIG. 831. 

    Figure  1  Waste-to-X production routes

    Figure  2  Examples of waste feedstock utilized in the HTW Demonstration Plant

    From left to right: mixed plastic fluff, chlorine-containing mixed plastic waste, compacted mixed plastic waste, dried sewage sludge (granulated), dried sewage sludge

    Figure  3  Concept of the Krupp Uhde PreCon® process[25]

    Figure  4  Simplified process diagram of the SVZ Schwarze Pumpe[35]

    Figure  5  Examples of waste feedstock utilized in the SVZ Schwarze Pumpe

    From left to right: compacted municipal solid waste (in different sizes), compacted shredded disused paper money from the GDR and briquetted black-market cigarettes, compacted dried sewage sludge and shredded wood waste

    Figure  6  FlexiSlag gasification pilot plant at IEC, TU Bergakademie Freiberg

    Figure  7  FlexiEntrained gasification pilot plant in Freiberg

    Figure  8  FlexiCOORVED gasification pilot plant at IEC, TU Bergakademie Freiberg

    Table  1  Input limits (acceptable temporary peak values) for contaminants at SVZ Schwarze Pumpe[34]

    Arsenic< 2000 mg/kg
    Cadmium< 1000 mg/kg
    Chloride< 10%
    Chrome< 20000 mg/kg
    Copper< 100000 mg/kg
    Cyanide< 500 mg/kg
    Dioxin & Furan< 50000 ng TE/kg
    Lead< 10000 mg/kg
    Mercury< 200 mg/kg
    Nickel< 5000 mg/kg
    PCB< 500 mg/kg
    Sulphur< 30000 mg/kg
    Tin< 10000 mg/kg
    Zinc< 100000 mg/kg
    Water content< 20%
    Calorific valueNo limit
    Ash contentNo limit
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  2  Overview of waste gasification technologies

    Technology provider (Process Name) Feedstock Operating Period Location Reactor capacity realized (planned) Products
    type pre-treatment
    Fixed-bed gasification technology
    *Air Liquide (Lurgi Fixed Bed Dry Bottom - FBDB) mixed plastics, MSW, RDF, sewage sludge,... + 25% coal pelletized 1991−2007 Schwarze Pumpe, Germany 15 t/h (N.A.) Methanol, Electricity
    *Envirotherm (British
    Gas-Lurgi - BGL)
    mixed plastics, MSW, RDF, sewage sludge,... +15% coal pelletized 2001−2007 Schwarze Pumpe, Germany 30 t/h (N.A.) Methanol, Electricity
    InEnTec (Plasma Enhanced Melting System - PEM) mixed plastics, RDF, medical waste shredded 2011-current Columbia Ridge, USA 1 t/h (5 t/h) H2
    Sierra Energy (FastOx) MSW, woody biomass shredded 2017-current Fort Hunter Ligget, USA <1 t/h (2 t/h) FT-Fuels, Electricity
    Fluidized-bed gasification technology
    *Thyssenkrupp (High Temperature Winkler- HTW) mixed plastics, MSW, wood, sewage sludge,... + 36% lignite pelletized 1986−1997 Berrenrath, Germany 30 t/h (N.A.) Methanol
    EBARA Environmental Plant Co. & UBE Industries (Ebara Ube Process- EUP) mixed plastics pelletized 2003-current Kawasaki, Japan 8 t/h (N.A.) H2 (for NH3), CO2
    Enerkem (Enerkem Process) MSW, mixed plastics, woody biomass shredded 2014-current Edmonton, Canada 13 t/h (N.A.) Ethanol (from Methanol)
    ThermoChem Recovery International (TRI Steam Reforming) MSW, mixed plastics, woody waste shredded 2021 (planned) Storey County, USA 5 t/h (20−25 t/h) FT-Fuels
    N.A. – no information available.
    Information indicated with * are for pioneering developments in Germany which are no longer in operation
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-03-05
  • 修回日期:  2021-04-16
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-05-12
  • 刊出日期:  2021-08-31

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