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Catalytic pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse by zeolite catalyst for the production of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

ABOUL-ENEIN Ateyya A. AWADALLAH Ahmed E. EL-DESOUKI Doaa S. ABOUL-GHEIT Noha A.K.

ABOUL-ENEINAteyya A., AWADALLAHAhmed E., EL-DESOUKIDoaa S., ABOUL-GHEITNoha A.K.. 沸石催化甘蔗渣裂解制备多壁碳纳米管[J]. 燃料化学学报. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5813(21)60127-5
引用本文: ABOUL-ENEINAteyya A., AWADALLAHAhmed E., EL-DESOUKIDoaa S., ABOUL-GHEITNoha A.K.. 沸石催化甘蔗渣裂解制备多壁碳纳米管[J]. 燃料化学学报. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5813(21)60127-5
ABOUL-ENEIN Ateyya A., AWADALLAH Ahmed E., EL-DESOUKI Doaa S., ABOUL-GHEIT Noha A.K.. Catalytic pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse by zeolite catalyst for the production of multi-walled carbon nanotubes[J]. Journal of Fuel Chemistry and Technology. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5813(21)60127-5
Citation: ABOUL-ENEIN Ateyya A., AWADALLAH Ahmed E., EL-DESOUKI Doaa S., ABOUL-GHEIT Noha A.K.. Catalytic pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse by zeolite catalyst for the production of multi-walled carbon nanotubes[J]. Journal of Fuel Chemistry and Technology. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5813(21)60127-5

沸石催化甘蔗渣裂解制备多壁碳纳米管

doi: 10.1016/S1872-5813(21)60127-5
详细信息
  • 中图分类号: O643.3

Catalytic pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse by zeolite catalyst for the production of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

Funds: The project was supported by the Science and Technology Development Fund (STDF) in Egypt (34830).
More Information
  • 摘要: 通过催化热解农业废弃物甘蔗渣 (SCB),采用两步工艺生产具有显著应用价值的碳纳米管 (CNTs)。主要研究沸石催化剂 (HZSM-5、HMOR和HY)、热解温度 (450−700 ℃)和SCB/ZSM-5的比例 (3−12)对SCB催化热解的影响,确定最佳工艺参数。随后,将第一步产生富含碳的热解产物用于第二步由Co-Mo/MgO催化生长CNTs。通过简单的两步工艺催化热解SCB生产CNTs。SCB的催化热解在半间歇式反应器 (外径 = 4 cm,长度 = 90 cm)中进行,CNTs的生长在水平反应器 (外径 = 2.5 cm,长度 = 100 cm)中进行。两个反应器通过玻璃管 (直径0.6 cm,长度12 cm)连接并将热解产物从反应器I转移到反应器II。在半间歇式反应器中放入经过预处理的SCB和沸石催化剂,并以20 ℃/min加热到反应所需温度。随后,将0.5 g Co-Mo/MgO加入到水平反应器中作为CNTs的生长催化剂。在一个典型的实验中,将2 g沸石催化剂、24 g SCB放入半间歇式反应器,研究了不同种类沸石催化剂在500 ℃温度条件下对SCB热解的影响。接着,使用HZSM-5研究了不同温度 (450−700 ℃)对SCB热解的影响。最后,研究了不同SCB/ZSM-5投料比例 (SCB/ZSM-5 = 3、6、9、12)对SCB热解的影响。此外,水平反应器中的CNTs生长温度恒定为700 ℃。通过XRD、TPR和TPD进行催化剂表征。XRD谱图证实了催化剂存在MgO和Co3O4,以及以小尺寸颗粒形式存在的CoMoO4和MgMoO4。使用XRD数据根据Scherer方程计算45% Co-5% Mo/MgO催化剂的平均晶粒尺寸为25.8 nm。TPR分析表明,Co-Mo/MgO催化剂是由未反应的Co3O4以及混合氧化物组成。使用XRD数据,计算得到HZSM-5、HMOR和HY的平均晶粒尺寸分别为43、41和51 nm。NH3-TPD分析表明沸石催化剂存在大量的酸性位点。催化热解SCB结果表明,由HY和HZSM-5催化剂在500 ℃得到的挥发性产品(生物油和气体)的总收率值分别为34.4%和32.8 %,而使用HMOR产生的这些挥发性产品的收率值最低 (28.8%)。用HZSM-5催化热解SCB获得了最高的碳产量 (23.1%)。然而,使用HMOR和HY热解催化剂产生的碳产量值较低,分别为15.8%和9.8%。使用TEM表征通过两步法生产的碳纳米管,并且测量了CNTs的外径。数据显示,用HZSM-5进行SCB热解产生了直径分布范围较宽的CNTs (10−56 nm),而用HMOR和HY热解催化剂则分别获得了直径较窄的CNTs (13−44 nm,12−28 nm)。拉曼光谱分析表明,使用HZSM-5作为SCB热解的催化剂可以生产最优的CNTs。研究了不同热解温度对CNTs产量的影响。结果显示,将热解温度从450 ℃提高到500 ℃,碳产率值从6.7%达到最佳值23.1%,接着增加温度至700 ℃,碳产量下降至16.7%。随后对不同温度下催化热解形成的碳产品进行TEM表征,结果显示,随着温度的升高碳产品中CNTs的比例下降,CNTs的直径范围变窄。拉曼光谱分析结果表明,在500和700 ℃形成的CNMs具有最少的缺陷。研究了投料比例对碳产品产量的影响,结果表明,SCB/ZSM-5的比例从3提高到12,生物油和气体的总产量从36.4%下降到32.8%,而生物炭的产量分别从63.6%增加到67.2%。根据催化剂的质量计算得到碳产量的最佳值是使用SCB/ZSM-5比例为6。使用TEM表征不同投料比例生产的碳产品,分析表征结果可得SCB/ZSM-5的比例为6,是形成具有良好质量的致密CNTs的最佳选择。并且不同投料比例的拉曼光谱显示,SCB/ZSM-5比例为6可以生产最优的CNTs。沸石类型 (HZSM-5、HMOR和HY)、热解温度 (450−700 ℃)和SCB/ZSM-5比例 (3−12)影响CNTs和热解产物 (气体、生物油和生物炭)的产量。实验结果表明,获得最高CNTs产量的条件为:热解温度为500 ℃、SCB/ZSM-5比例为6;获得最高生物油和气体总产量 (40%)的条件为:热解温度为700 ℃、SCB/ZSM-5比例为12。TEM分析表明,使用HZSM-5催化剂在热解温度450 ℃只生成竹节状碳纳米管 (BCNTs),而CNTs和碳纳米洋葱 (CNO)是在较高温度热解温度 (500−700 ℃)下产生的。使用SCB/ZSM-5的比例为6时,生成CNTs的直径分布范围最大 (7−76 nm)。拉曼光谱分析表明,使用SCB/ZSM-5的比例为6时,形成的CNTs最优。该研究显示,在半间歇式反应器中催化热解SCB是生产CNTs的有效技术,通过对工艺和反应器的优化可以达到更好的效果。
  • Figure  1  Schematic diagram of the system used to convert SCB to CNTs

    Figure  2  XRD pattern (a) and H2-TPR profile (b) of the fresh Co-Mo/MgO catalyst, and XRD patterns (c) and NH3-TPD profiles (d) of different zeolite catalysts profiles

    Figure  3  (a) Yields of pyrolysis products and (b) yield of deposited carbon obtained by SCB pyrolysis using various acidic zeolite catalysts

    Figure  4  TEM images and outer diameter distribution histograms of CNMs obtained by SCB pyrolysis using different zeolites

    (a), (b): HZSM-5, (c), (d): HMOR, and (e), (f): HY

    Figure  5  Schematic diagram for CNMs obtained over the Co-Mo/MgO catalyst via catalytic pyrolysis of SCB using various zeolite catalysts

    Figure  6  Raman spectra of CNMs obtained by catalytic pyrolysis of SCB using different zeolites

    Figure  7  (a) Yields of pyrolysis products and (b) yield of deposited carbon obtained by catalytic pyrolysis of SCB at different temperatures using the SCB/ZSM-5 ratio of 12

    Figure  8  TEM images and outer diameter distribution histograms of CNMs synthesized by catalytic pyrolysis of SCB at different temperatures: (a), (b) 450 °C, (c), (d) 500 °C, (e), (f) 550 °C, (g), (h) 600 °C, and (i), (j) 700 °C

    Figure  9  Raman spectra of CNMs obtained by catalytic pyrolysis of SCB at different temperatures

    Figure  10  (a) Yields of pyrolysis products and (b) yield of deposited carbon obtained using various SCB/HZSM-5 ratios

    Figure  11  TEM images and outer diameter distribution histograms of CNTs obtained at different SCB/ZSM-5 ratios of: (a), (b) 3, (c), (d) 6, (e), (f) 9, and (g), (h) 12

    Figure  12  Raman spectra of CNTs obtained at different SCB/HZSM-5 ratios

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  • 收稿日期:  2021-03-17
  • 修回日期:  2021-05-14
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-07-16

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