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城市生活垃圾灰渣的熔融和黏温特性研究

洪千惠 刘霞 吴昊 李萌 唐龙飞 陈雪莉

洪千惠, 刘霞, 吴昊, 李萌, 唐龙飞, 陈雪莉. 城市生活垃圾灰渣的熔融和黏温特性研究[J]. 燃料化学学报. doi: 10.19906/j.cnki.JFCT.2022071
引用本文: 洪千惠, 刘霞, 吴昊, 李萌, 唐龙飞, 陈雪莉. 城市生活垃圾灰渣的熔融和黏温特性研究[J]. 燃料化学学报. doi: 10.19906/j.cnki.JFCT.2022071
HONG Qian-hui, LIU Xia, WU Hao, LI Meng, TANG Long-fei, CHEN Xue-li. Study on fusibility and viscosity-temperature characteristics of municipal solid waste ash[J]. Journal of Fuel Chemistry and Technology. doi: 10.19906/j.cnki.JFCT.2022071
Citation: HONG Qian-hui, LIU Xia, WU Hao, LI Meng, TANG Long-fei, CHEN Xue-li. Study on fusibility and viscosity-temperature characteristics of municipal solid waste ash[J]. Journal of Fuel Chemistry and Technology. doi: 10.19906/j.cnki.JFCT.2022071

城市生活垃圾灰渣的熔融和黏温特性研究

doi: 10.19906/j.cnki.JFCT.2022071
基金项目: 上海市2020年度“科技创新行动计划”社会发展科技攻关项目(20dz1203300)资助
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    E-mail: cxl@ecust.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: X705

Study on fusibility and viscosity-temperature characteristics of municipal solid waste ash

Funds: The project was supported by the Social Development Science and Technology Tackling Project of 2020 “Scientific and Innovative Action Plan of Shanghai” (20dz1203300).
  • 摘要: 城市生活垃圾灰渣的熔融及黏温特性对其固定床熔渣气化炉的优化设计和操作具有重要指导意义。本文分析了上海老港垃圾(LG)和扬州成型垃圾(YZ)的灰成分特征,利用高温热台显微镜、X射线衍射仪(XRD)及FactSage模拟探究了垃圾灰的熔融机制,同时结合高温黏度计、扫描电镜-能谱分析仪(SEM-EDS)和XRD分析晶体矿物质生成对灰渣黏度变化的影响。结果表明,两种生活垃圾灰的硅铝比均较高,但铝钙含量差异较大。YZ灰流动温度比LG灰约高150 ℃,与LG灰中形成易低温共熔的硅灰石,而YZ灰在高温下仍存在石英及尖晶石有关。两种灰渣的熔融均符合“熔融-溶解”机制,且随温度升高均经历收缩、熔融和扩散过程。两条黏温曲线均呈现玻璃渣的特征,但YZ灰的黏度增长较快,与其降温过程产生长条状钙长石晶体有关。以YZ为气化原料需较高的排渣温度,而LG灰的熔融特性和黏温特性均较好,应用此原料气化炉可操作温度范围大。
  • 图  1  BGL炉结构示意图

    Figure  1  Schematic diagram of BGL furnace structure

    图  2  LG垃圾(a)和YZ垃圾(b)的形貌

    Figure  2  Morphology of LG (a) and YZ (b)

    图  3  LG垃圾的物理组成

    Figure  3  Physical composition of LG

    图  4  LG灰的熔融行为

    Figure  4  Melting behavior of LG ash

    图  5  YZ灰的熔融行为

    Figure  5  Melting behavior of YZ ash

    图  6  不同温度下灰渣的XRD谱图

    Figure  6  XRD patterns of ash at different temperatures (a): LG; (b): YZ

    Q-SiO2; W-CaSiO3; L-Ca2SiO4; G-Ca2Al2SiO7; P-CaTiO3; A-Ca2MgSi2O7;A1-Ca(Fe,Mg)Si2O6; A2-CaAl2Si2O8; M-MgCr2O4;D-(Fe,Mg)(Cr,Fe)2O4

    图  7  不同温度下灰矿物的组成

    Figure  7  Mineral composition of ash at different temperatures by FactSage

    (a): LG; (b): YZ

    图  8  灰渣的黏温曲线

    Figure  8  Viscosity temperature curve of ash slag

    图  9  两种灰渣临界黏温附近的XRD谱图

    Figure  9  XRD patterns near the critical viscosity temperature of ash

    图  10  两种灰渣降温冷却图像

    Figure  10  Image of ash cooling (a): LG; (b): YZ

    图  11  YZ灰渣析出晶体的SEM-EDS分析

    Figure  11  Result of SEM-EDS analysis for YZ slag

    表  1  原料的工业分析、元素分析和热值

    Table  1  Proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and calorific value of sample

    SampleProximate analysis wd/%Ultimate analysis wd/%QHHV/(MJ·kg−1
    AVFCCHONS
    LG20.2775.354.3847.506.1823.752.030.2719.45
    YZ31.2061.707.1029.013.4732.301.332.6916.32
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  样品灰的化学组成

    Table  2  Chemical composition of ash

    SampleContent w/%A/BS/A
    SiO2Al2O3CaOFe2O3SO3MgOK2OTiO2Na2OP2O5Cr2O3ClZnOCuOSrOothers
    LG39.016.7327.804.613.493.262.591.993.823.690.192.340.170.130.030.151.135.80
    YZ55.8914.2214.006.080.882.582.181.411.180.520.680.080.230.010.020.042.753.93
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  样品灰的熔融温度

    Table  3  Ash fusion temperature of sample

    SampleTemperature /℃
    DTSTHTFTFT-DTFT-ST
    LG11321156116011734117
    YZ1147117411961310163136
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  灰渣黏温曲线特征参数

    Table  4  Characteristic parameters of ash slag viscosity temperature curve

    SampleFT/℃t25/℃tcv /℃ηcv /(Pa·s)
    LG11731206116054.57
    YZ13101483138086.73
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-06-30
  • 录用日期:  2022-08-20
  • 修回日期:  2022-08-19
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-09-08

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